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Following the death of his father, Sigismund tried to rule Sweden from Poland, leaving Sweden under the control of a regent – his paternal uncle (Gustav I's youngest son) Charles (IX) – but was unable to defend his Swedish throne against the ambitions of his uncle.
In 1598 Sigismund and his Swedish-Polish army was defeated at the Battle of Stångebro by the forces of Charles, and he was declared deposed by the Estates in 1599.
Following the Black Death, the union weakened, and Scania reunited with Denmark.
Gustav Vasa (hereinafter referred to as Gustav I) was elected King of Sweden by the Estates of the Realm, assembled in Strängnäs on 6 June 1523.In domestic politics John III showed clear Catholic sympathies, inspired by his queen, creating friction with the Swedish clergy and nobility.He reintroduced several Catholic traditions previously abolished, and his foreign policy was affected by his family connection to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, where his eldest son had been made King Sigismund III in 1587.Crown tax revenues increased, but more importantly the new system was perceived as fairer.A war with Lübeck in 1535 resulted in the expulsion of the Hanseatic traders, who previously had had a monopoly on foreign trade.