Sunrise is defined as the instant in the morning under ideal meteorological conditions, with standard refraction of the Sun's rays, when the upper edge of the sun's disk is coincident with an ideal horizon.
Sunset is defined as the instant in the evening under ideal meteorological conditions, with standard refraction of the Sun's rays, when the upper edge of the sun's disk is coincident with an ideal horizon.
Educators can sometimes use the enormous media and student interest in some of these topics as a way of generating discussion about what constitutes science and what does not. Oberg’s Space Age Myths: Veteran space journalist Oberg explains a number of UFO cases, including those involving astronauts and cosmonauts. Crop Circle Report (CSI Archive): of contents A popular “government conspiracy” theory held that NASA has actually discovered a human face (as well as pyramids and other structures) on Mars, but was withholding crucial information from the public about the profound implications of this discovery. Although his books are no longer as popular as they once were, his ideas have been incorporated into many new pseudo-science tracts and irresponsible television “pseudo-documentaries.” Stiebing, William March 30, 1974. “The Nazca Drawings Revisited” in Skeptical Inquirer, Spring 1983. An astronomer warns of the rise of creationist ideas in Muslim countries and the need for education. Origins Archive: (full of resources, discussions, links) Supernova Remnants, and Young Earth Creationism by Dave Moore: (How creationists misuse arguments about exploding stars.) Lawson, Kristan , Aug. The web sites below provide a skeptical examination of this claim and the so-called evidence for it.
It’s an opportunity to explain how the scientific method allows us to test controversial hypotheses and determine whether nature really works in the way they claim. Autopsy Hoax: About a purported film showing an autopsy of an alien body recovered at Roswell, New Mexico. “The Crop-Circle Phenomenon: An Investigative Report” in May/June 1995, p. The real story is a lot less exciting and involves a perfectly natural geologic formation on the red planet. (on the web at: Science or Charlatanism: Robert Sheaffer’s short article challenges a number of Von Daniken’s claims. From the many moon rocks brought back by the astronauts to the instruments they left on the Moon, there was always ample evidence that the moon landings actually happened. Good ammunition for debunking the notion that NASA never went to the Moon point by point. A nice history that includes 20th century groups that believed the Earth was flat. “Did the Moon Sink the Titanic: Astrology, Lunar Phases, and Maritime Disasters” in Triangle Mystery Solved, 2nd ed. A librarian researches the extravagant claims about disasters in a small area of the Earth and finds little to support them. The Tungusca Event: (Analysis by science writer James Oberg from 1982, debunking the notion that the impact event in Siberia in 1908 was an alien spaceship.) D. “Tidal Forces on May 5, 2000” in cation Review, (2004): Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI): Best site — many articles from Skeptical Inquirer, links, activities for young people, and much more.
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The “Great Moon Hoax”: Did Astronauts Land on the Moon? Astrology got a big media boost in 1988 when it was revealed that for a large part of his term, President’s Reagan’s schedule had been controlled by the predictions of a San Francisco astrologer (who had been on Nancy Reagan’s payroll.) However, astrology is also the field in which the largest number of scientific tests have been performed and the evidence clearly demonstrates that astrological connections are no more than wishful thinking. Astrotest: Dutch skeptic Rob Nanninga describes an experimental test of astrology done with the help of astrologers. In recent years, the claims have grown to include crashes of such alien spacecraft and even kidnappings of unsuspecting Earth inhabitants by aliens. “The Lunacy of It All: Lunar Phases and Human Behavior” in site.) of contents Several popular authors have touted the story of an African tribe that somehow acquired knowledge of the dim white-dwarf star around Sirius (which is visible only with the aid of larger telescopes.) Some see this as evidence of extraterrestrial visitors, but the real explanation probably involves the visitors who were gathering information about the tribe and had read about the discovery of Sirius B before they left and discussed it with the tribe. “Sirius Enigmas” in Brecher, Kenneth & Feirtag, M., eds. Sirius Matters: The Chandra Observatory site has a short, skeptical introduction to this issue. Transcript of the 1974 AAAS Symposium: (A Velikovsky partisan offers a verbatim record of the session debating Velikovsky’s views that forms the basis of the Goldsmith book, above.
Defined as the instant in the morning, when the centre of the Sun is at a depression angle of six degrees (6°) below an ideal horizon.
At this time in the absence of moonlight, artificial lighting or adverse atmospheric conditions, the illumination is such that large objects may be seen but no detail is discernible.
Is defined as the instant in the morning, when the centre of the Sun is at a depression angle of twelve degrees (12°) below an ideal horizon.
At this time in the absence of moonlight, artificial lighting or adverse atmospheric conditions, it is dark for normal practical purposes.